The Purpose of Control Accounts

The reasons for having control accounts are as follows:

1. Check on the accuracy

They provide a check on the accuracy of entries made in the personal accounts in the sales ledger and purchase ledger. It is very easy to make a mistake in posting entries, because there might be hundreds of entries to make. Figures might get transposed. Some entries may be omitted altogether, so that an invoice or a payment transaction does not appear in a personal account as it should. By comparing:

o The total balance on the debtors account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the sales ledger.

o The total balance on the creditors account with the total of individual balances on the personal accounts in the purchase ledger.

It is possible to identify the fact that errors have been made.

2. Location of errors

It could also assist in the location of errors, where posting to the control accounts are made daily or weekly, or even monthly. If a clerk fails to record an invoice or a payment in a personal account, or makes a transaction error, it would be a formidable task to locate the error or errors at the end of a year, say, given the hundred or thousands of transactions during the year.

By using the control account, a comparison with the individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger can be made for every week or day of the month, and the error found much more quickly than if accounts did not exist.

3. For internal check

Where there is a separate of clerical bookkeeping duties, the control account provides an internal check. The person posting entries to the accounts will act as a check on a different person who job it to post entries to the sales and purchase ledger accounts.

4. More simply and quickly

To provide debtors and creditors balances more quickly for producing a trial balance or balance sheet. A single balance on a control account is obviously expected simpler and quickly than many individual balances in the sales or purchase ledger.

This means also that the number of accounts in the double entry bookkeeping system can be kept down to a manageable size, since the personal accounts are memorandum accounts only and the control accounts instead provide the accounts required for a double entry system.

Control de obras 3000 de Cea Ordenadores

The Dry Method LECA Production Process

LECA production process features

The raw material for LECA production is mainly sedimentary clay materials, less frequently – metamorphic rocks (argillite, clay slate and other stone-like materials).

Their composition is complex and they include both clay minerals (hydrous micas, kaolinite, etc.) and field spar, quartz, carbonates, organic and iron admixtures.

So what is the raw material for production of this construction material? Clays containing no more than 30% of quartz are the best material for production of LECA.

Special research is conducted to determine if a particular material is suitable for production. The main requirements for the raw materials:

1. ability to swell up during baking;

2. high fusibility;

3. a specific swinging-up interval.

Sometimes special additives are introduced into raw materials to increase the winding-up coefficient. Organic (diesel fuel, fuel oil residue, etc.), ferruginous substances, geological materials (perlite, alunite) or artificial substances can be used as additives.

The product of the raw material processing is raw granules of a specific size and composition. Such granules are subjected to heat treatment: they are dried, baked and cooled. At the net stage the produced material is sorted in terms of density, and is chipped into smaller particles. After sorting LECA is ready for storage or shipment to the point of use.

The main LECA production stages:

• delivery of the raw material;

• clay drying;

• raw material cooling;

• cooling of granules;

• fractionation;

• transportation and storage.

Methods of LECA granule production

There are four main LECA production methods which are different in terms of their technology:

1. dry;

2. wet;

3. powder and plastic;

4. Plastic.

The choice of a particular method depends on the raw material quality.

Dry LECA production method

This is the simplest method. It is used for stone-like raw material. First it is chipped and then charged into the rotary furnace. Such a method is most efficient if the rock is uniform, without harmful inclusions. It is characterized by modest costs and low power consumption.

The process flow diagram of a typical LECA gravel production shop with the capacity of 100 thous. m3 per year consists of three rooms:

• preparatory forming room;

• furnace room;

• finished product storage area

The process consists of the following stages:

• feeding, preparation and forming of the raw material;

• clay drying;

• clay baking;

• LECA cooling;

• feeding of the finished product to the storage area.

LECA granule cooling

After baking LECA should be cooled. The cooling begins back in the rotary furnace due to the incoming air. Then it continues on airslide conveyors and in drum coolers, etc.

The material strength depends on the granule cooling rate. If cooling was too fast, granules may crack. In case of slow cooling the material quality may decrease as a result of softening and crumpling of granules.

That is why LECA is cooled to 800 to 900 degrees immediately after swelling up. Then it is cooled to 600 to 700 degrees for 20 minutes.

This is required so that the hardening procedures without significant thermal stress and that crystal minerals form, which increase the strength properties of the material. Further cooling may be performed reliably quickly.

LECA fractionation and transport

Fractionation is performed using drum screens of a cylindrical or multifaceted shape.

LECA is transported within the plant using compressed air or a belt conveyor. The conveyor method is more popular as transportation via pipes using air flow results in damage of the sheath and crushing of granules.

The finished material is stored in silo- or bin-type storage. Before storage LECA is preliminarily packaged into special moisture-proof sacks of varying volume.

LECA production equipment

The LECA production line consists of:

• ripping devices;

• perforated rollers;

• clay mixer;

• drying drums;

• baking furnace;

• bins;

• air-slide conveyors;

• belt- or other types of conveyors;

• trays;

• gravel Søters, etc.

A spacial crusher is used for primary processing of the raw material. It consist of a chipping unit which enterprises such components as

1. bladed counterrotating shafts;

2. rigid frame;

3. gear drive;

4. receiving bin.

When the shafts start to rotate, the raw material is chipped to the necessary size. A mixer is used for the inclusion of necessary additives.

Control de obras 3000 de Cea Ordenadores

Features Of An Offsite Data Storage Facility

Companies that offer a professional offsite backup service are serious about looking after your data. Many of these companies have people that have experience in military level security and extremely high levels of technology. These technologies and techniques are surprisingly advanced, and understand that may mean more than gadgets. From the concrete that the building is made of, through to the types of steels used, and temperature control materials, are all a part.

Let's take a look at some of the measures that these companies take with the safe storage of your data. It is important to note that many of them will never release full information on what they do, even to clients, and disclosure of any information by any existing or previous client, would be a serious breach of their agreements.

  • Location. There are many factors considered for the location of a facility. Region, laws and climate will play a significant role in decision making. Away from the prying eyes of public and often in remote locations that allow for a large amount of surveillance around the facility.
  • Underground. Underground military bunkers are the perfect locations for these facilities as underground locations offer a range of added security features.
  • Construction. Materials used in the construction of these facilities is typically much more than the norm. Super thick walls made of special materials and techniques that even take a bomb blast are what you can expect. The latest technologies in construction keeping that construction are used.
  • High tech. Entering a facility can feel like entering something out of a James Bond movie, with super high technologies. Motion, temperature, light and sound are all monitored. Retina and finger print technologies are commonly used for security beyond the regular smart cards.
  • Compartmentalisation. This an another essential security feature, as individual data will be stored separately in different sectors. Data on how this is managed and even plans of the facility will also be protected.
  • Personnel. Staff with the experience, background, knowledge and what are fully checked and conversant with required procedures make up a critical part of any facility. Effective fail safe measures and total system cross checking are essential. No one person can do anything.
  • Power. Naturally sufficient, any one of these facilities can maintain all levels of security without reliance on external services for extended periods of time is critical. Self managed generators that can supply the facility for extended time frames is normally the case.
  • IT security. Keeping the facility functioning also allows it to maintain its own security. Remember that your data can probably only access in a physical or online sense by choice. Many companies take the measure to store large amounts of important data completely offline for super offsite data storage security.

Checking the facility of your potential supplier is probably an option although you will be subject to very serious non-disclosure agreements and you will certainly not allow to complete understanding of all of the features they use.

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Find Help in Self Build Directory to Start Your Self Build Plans

Planning on constructing your own house or going on a self building plan may be a cost saving technique but starting on this plan may be as good as starting you own family. Self build directory will extend its help for you to make your plans real. These directories will provide you a list of suppliers for both the construction materials that you need and for the services if you have not decided about how to get some manpower to do all the building.

Self build directory will provide you with the necessary information that you need about the supplier by directly providing you the supplier's contact number and address. With the help of an internet access, you will easily find a number of providers from different self build directories in alphabetical arrangements of A – Z. Unlike the usual directory such telephone directories, self build directories neatly categorized the services that you need in your self building plans. Among the categories given are Project Planning which includes Site Finding, Estate Agents, Solicitors Finance, Insurance and VAT Guarantees and Warranty Schemes, Architects and Designers, Surveying, Energy Assessment & Project Planning, Engineers, Structural, M & E and Building Control. A category on Siteworks, Services and Materials which include Foundations, Builders and Building Services / Equipment, Ground Works and Contracting, Plant and Equipment Hire / Scaffolding, Water Treatment (Purification / Waste), Tanks, Water and Fuel Storage, Alternative Power / Renewables (Wind, Hydro, Solar and Photo Voltaic) and Timber and Builders Merchants are also incorporated in the directory.

Structure and Building Envelope, Interior Installations, Fixtures and Fittings, Exterior Work and Product Restoration, Renovation and Traditional Skills are also one of the major considerations one must take note of when initiating a self build, and luckily these are also all provided in the self build directory.

With all the given considerations and factors that one must consider before self building, it is quite compensating to think that a directory where you will find every help that you need is available at a single grab or a one click using the internet. Contacting the right supplier at a good timing may even warrant a good discount price on the construction materials especially when it is not only the materials that you are buying or contracting from them.

Self building needs assistance. It does not literally mean, you do it all your own. The hammering alone and the putting up of the wood if you are planning to self build a wooden house or the mixing of cement is impossible to do by just self help. You need hands. It is but important though that you manage and take control of everything while the house is under construction. That alone is self build. It might also help you to browse first and take note and list those suppliers which offer a good lower price when it comes to services and materials offered and make a comparison and decide on who gives it the lowest among them. With this, you will certainly be able to save more than you think.

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Review of Takeoff Software for Estimating Construction

So often people want to rush out and buy estimating software or takeoff software without first trying to define their internal estimating processes. Once the estimating process is clearly defined, then and only then, you can actually try to compartmentalize the process into segments. So often the segment is really quantity takeoff. Takeoff of what you may wonder? That is like the million dollar question. This article will speak about the takeoff software process which is usually associated with estimating software processes. The takeoff software process can often be takeoff of materials for some folks, and to many others, the takeoff process of scoped systems to create estimates or proposals. This review or comparison will not try to explain the estimating software process but bring to you valid quantum takeoff thinking among estimators in a quest to find which product thinks the way you do. These are the opinions of the author.

I will review and compare 3 types of measuring takeoff products:

It is extremely important to note that these are only measuring takeoff programs, NOT estimating programs.

1) Planswift

2) On-Screen Takeoff by On Center Software

3) Electronic Plan Takeoff Software

All three products have their strengths, however, Planswift and On-Screen Takeoff are stand-alone products and Electronic Plan Takeoff is actually dynamically integrated live with Microsoft Excel which means that it starts and finishes and saves in Excel. They all integrate with Excel, however, you will have to evaluate your thought process and decide which of the three products work-flow think along the lines of how you think. For instance, what is the first thing you do when you get a set of plans? Typically, you start flipping through the plans to see how involved the project is and what type of work do you see that is attractive for your company. Then when you decide you are going to estimate this job, more often than not, you start like 80% of companies in the world of construction estimating by opening your takeoff master template Excel spreadsheet. You rename your spreadsheet to the new job or project and off you go performing takeoff. This is where the differences are:

In Planswift, you decide what drawing you are on and then you perform the measuring of an item you want to perform takeoff on the plan. Unfortunately, that is not exactly how an estimator thinks. Planswift does give you the ability to add a type of takeoff item on the fly by naming it and then perform takeoff of it; somewhat of a very manual and slow process. They also provide you with the ability of applying a type of assembly to a takeoff to aggregate quantities of items in that assembly. Not quite the way an estimator thinks. It forces you to jump to different screens which slows down the process. Typically, the main start of anyone's takeoff process, or some may think of it as a checklist approach, is to start with your own spreadsheet of YOUR items. Those items can be material items or can be scoped assembly system items. Either way, by starting with a master spreadsheet say in Excel for example, many estimators think of this as a risk reducer, not to forget things they normally takeoff. Being that Planswift is a stand-alone takeoff program, it typically saves your takeoff images in Planswift instead of your estimate in Excel, if Excel is your estimating system. If you are using Excel, you have to manually save your takeoff measurement numbers in Excel and your takeoff images in Planswift or Elsewhere, just not in Excel where the takeoff quantity resides. Again, if you want to integrate with Excel, they force you to either export or import takeoff items from Excel rather than being dynamically integrated live to Excel. They do however have the ability to dump the measured quantity from Planswift into any Excel spreadsheet or Word document. The main purpose or the primary focus of this program is measuring, therefore it does a good job at that function. Most of the other functions require you to jump around different screens, and essentially, you lose your thought of where you are. There are some features that attempt to address the estimating process, however, there are many features that are missing for Planswift to be a full fledged estimating system; it is NOT one. Planswift does integrate with the leading estimating system Sage Timberline, but the integration is weak. Since Timberline's power is in assembly takeoff and where most estimators stay in Timberline, Planswift does not give the estimator the ability to add quantities of miscellaneous Timberline items or one-time items that need to be added on the fly to an assembly while they are in Planswift at the Timberline interview screen, and while being in the measuring phase. Planswift does allow the deletion of assembly generated items as well adjusting assembly assembly item quantities in a different screen. Again, to perform all that, you are forced to jump around to different screens. No assembly is ever perfect in any estimating system since project conditions are always quite different, therefore, having to add items to an assembly is extremely important. That adding of items and associated quantities is an absolute requirement any estimator typically has to do during the takeoff measuring and estimating phase; something that Planswift struggles with as related to Timberline Estimating. Planswift does allow the direct send of measurements to Timberline Estimating items and assemblies while in Timberline Estimating, just as you would do with the old digitizer measuring boards. Training, support and maintenance are extra for Planswift. On-Screen Takeoff by On Center Software, and Planswift charge their annual maintenance and support fees per license (mandatory) which costs the end user more expense annually especially if a customer has more than one license.

On Center's On-Screen Takeoff is the Grand Daddy of software takeoff products due to the fact that it has been around the longest. On Center recognizes that On-Screen Takeoff is primarily a measuring program. That is why they have a separate estimating program named QuickBid for those who want an estimating program. On Center does not try to trick you into thinking it is an estimating system. In On-Screen Takeoff, you also decide what drawing you are on and then you perform the measuring of the plan. BUT, before you start, you can load a master set styles of things you typically takeoff or measure from your own library. That process seems to be less complicated than that of Planswift. On-Screen Takeoff does give you the ability to add a type of takeoff item on the fly by naming it and then performing takeoff of it; somewhat of a manual and slow process as well. The program does come with many features that are primarily focused on simple measuring to advanced measuring issues all with attention to detail regarding easy navigation for the takeoff process. On Center does a very good job at that. However, there seems to be a disconnect of thought from an Excel spreadsheet items you may use for estimating and / or proposals. The integration to Microsoft Excel is not a dynamic live link, more like an after thought in my opinion. Yes, you can establish links to named styles to cells or ranges in Excel, something rigid. But the question you will have to ask yourself, which will happen more often than not is: What do you do when you need to add things on the fly during takeoff and in an Excel spreadsheet? Again there will be manual associations you will have to establish with Excel which is another major slowdown. You have to manually save your takeoff measurement numbers in Excel and your takeoff images in On-Screen or anywhere you decide, except the takeoff images will not be saved in Excel where the takeoff quantity resides. This type of situation arises when a takeoff program is a stand-alone program. On Center's On-Screen Takeoff has the best integration with the most widely used estimating system in the USA: Sage Timberline Estimating. It basically mimics the same interview process as you would do with the old digitizer measuring boards. By working directly with Timberline, On-Screen Takeoff allows the estimator to perform takeoff of a Timberline variable question and immediately returns back directly with the takeoff quantity in a Timberline assembly at the variable question. By virtue of this process, On-Screen Takeoff allows the estimator to continue his / her Timberline interview process in Sage Timberline Estimating by reviewing / massaging generated quantities, or adding items in a Timberline assembly as the estimator see fit. That workflow process gives full control to the estimator, good job On Center. Training, support and maintenance are extra for On-Screen Takeoff. On-Screen Takeoff by On Center Software, and Planswift charge their annual maintenance and support fees per license (mandatory) which costs the end user more expense annually especially if a customer has more than one license.

This next system is only if your estimating system or proposal generator is Microsoft Excel. Electronic Plan Takeoff Software is a plug-in for Excel. You start your spreadsheet, you perform the measuring takeoff, you may even add some more items on the fly all the while you are in the measuring phase in the Electronic Plan Takeoff program. When you are done, even if you added items on the fly, they automatically appear in your Excel spreadsheet. Excel is the control of everything. Your project is started in Excel, your takeoff is saved in Excel, the estimate or proposal is / can be produced there in Excel; one program, one place. Many takeoff programs interface with Excel somehow, but only Electronic Plan Takeoff is live linked with Excel, meaning all your Excel spreadsheet descriptions appear in the measuring takeoff program so you always know where you are in Excel. That is a huge difference in comparison to Planswift and On-Screen Takeoff. You can even change a description of a takeoff item in Electronic Plan Takeoff and it is automatically changed live, in your Excel spreadsheet. When you talk about the estimating and takeoff phase you must keep processes clean and easy and this program does just that. There is no getting lost in this program. Just like the other reviewed programs above, the central focus of this program is takeoff measuring, and it does a GREAT job at that. The navigation within the program is really simple and easy. It is not made to work with other estimating systems, but there is a version that allows the direct send of measurements to any Microsoft Windows program awaiting a keyboard entry, just as you would do with digitizer measuring boards. There is also a version that works with digitizer boards as well. If you use Microsoft Excel for estimating, or takeoffs, or proposals, then this Electronic Plan Takeoff program for Excel would be your best choice. The integration to Excel is unmatched in Electronic Plan Takeoff compared to Planswift or On-Screen Takeoff. What is quite different in Electronic Plan Takeoff is that training, support, and maintenance are INCLUDED with a purchase, whereas training, support and maintenance are extra for Planswift and On-Screen Takeoff. Moreover, annual support and maintenance for Electronic Plan Takeoff year two and beyond is a low fee per company per year, instead of per license. On-Screen Takeoff by On Center Software, and Planswift charge their annual maintenance and support fees per license (mandatory) which costs the end user more expense annually especially if a customer has more than one license.

Microsoft and Excel are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Planswift is the registered trademark of Tech Unlimited, Inc. On-Screen Takeoff and QuickBid are registered trademarks of On Center Software, Inc. Sage Timberline Office, Sage Timberline Estimating are registered trademarks of Sage Software, Inc.

Control de obras 3000 de Cea Ordenadores

Commercial Construction Tips – Facts About Construction Projects

Commercial construction is often an arbiter of changing economic conditions. Construction projects mean both an improvement economy and a way to improve the economy of a given area. Read on to learn more interesting facts about it.

This type of construction helps public sector agencies as well as private firms. Big new schools in areas where people are moving give students a chance to learn in state of the art facilities. New office buildings bring jobs to the area, and the upward spiral continues. Not only do the buildings benefit the users, but the building process itself gives workers a solid job for several months, and the expenses from the construction project go directly into the local economy.

The United States is the second in the world in terms of this construction, regardless of where the company doing the building is headquartered. As much as 10% of all commercial construction takes place in the US, and New York is the city with the most commercial construction going on – $ 8.5 billion (that's billion with a B) in 2013. A lot of the construction was for residential buildings . Following New York were Houston and Dallas. Those two cities spent $ 10 billion in 2013 on commercial projects.
One of the largest trends in commercial construction is green building. Experts from the Environmental Protection Agency expect that by 2017 as much as 48% of new building will be done with green building materials. To put that in financial terms, it could mean as much as $ 145 billion dollars.

By 2018, 84% of residential construction companies plan to have at least some of their construction projects classified as green. To get an idea of ​​just what kind of impact this has on the overall economy, consider that residential projects total as much as 5% of the current gross domestic product of the US. As more and more firms add green building to their plans, it may mean that as much as 18% of GDP will be based around green construction.

Big commercial office buildings are going green, too. LEED certification is becoming the main standard, and builders are up to 41% green as of 2012. Just how quickly is this growing? Consider that only 2% of commercial construction, non-residential, projects were green in 2005. It's no surprise that states like Hawaii and California are leading the way in LEED projects.

It's not just the US that is interested in green construction, though. LEED certifications around the world are becoming more common. A study released earlier this year showed that as many as 69,000 LEED projects are going on globally in 150 different countries.

This construction is as important to the global economy as it has ever been, and the increases in such projects over the last few years signal a positive change after the worldwide recession of 2008-09 and the soft recovery that followed. With even more green projects being planned than ever before, commercial construction projects will also be kinder to the planet, meaning everyone will benefit for years to come.

Control de obras 3000 de Cea Ordenadores

Effective Job Numbering And Cost Code Systems


Many companies have a sequential job numbering system, but have you considered the possibility of altering the numbering sequence so you can pull reports for a certain type of project or projects by year and the informational reports that could be generated?

And, are your cost codes sufficient to cover the details you need to see in your reports? Do you lump all site related travel and compliance into one code, or do you have the details of hotels vs. housing and meals vs. subsistence?

Not all software programs are sophisticated enough to allow for customized job type numbering sequences; however, even the basic job cost software systems can be adapted to allow for an advanced numbering system.

Specific Job Numbering Sequences

Advanced reporting techniques can yield a wealth of information. How jobs are numbered so ease the reporting burden so projects of a certain type and / or year can be easily excluded from the software. Samples of numbering sequences could be based on the following criteria:

· Year project was awarded

· Public vs. private works

· Commercial vs. residential

· Construction vs. service

· Division (s) of the Company

If your software allows, you may start the job number with the year awarded, followed by the job type and then a sequential number. Management may request a report for gross revenue on all commercial contractor improvement projects in 2013. If you have a numbering sequence, this would be an easy report to pull, rather than go through all your 2013 projects and manually add the numbers to obtain the results.

The job cost master file is another good source of information if all fields are completed and there is a common usage of custom fields that can be used to pull reports.

Cost Codes – Too few or Too Many?

Often we see cost code lists that spill onto multiple pages. Most job cost software programs allow for use of one cost code for multiple categories (Labor, Materials, Direct Job Expense, etc.).

A good source to use for establishing a cost code list is the bid recap and detail sheets used when bidding projects. This will yield the different stages of labor, types of materials to install associated with that labor, the different types of equipment to be rented, categories of subcontractors and the details of direct job costs to be incurred.

These activities can be "numbered" to establish a list of cost codes. If the software allows for use of one code across multiple categories, give thought to not duplicating descriptions, but arranging codes together by "type" of work being performed, rented equipment, direct job expenses, work typically contracted out, etc.

Keeping your cost codes consistent will then allow even more sophisticated reporting – management can now ask for all commercial contractor improvement projects in 2013 and the total cost of crane rents for the year on those specific projects.

Why Go Through These Steps?

History is a great source of information when anticipating the future. Cost details can be analyzed for specific types of jobs when preparing to bid a similar project. Historical information can be analyzed for margins on certain types of projects or a division of the company to make decisions on whether or not a certain type of work is profitable.

If fields are available in the job cost master file, reports can be declined not only by type and year but by project manager as well to look at performance and estimate vs. actual results.


When developing any numbering system, consistency is important in order to maximize the reporting results. Management should determine the information they wish to see and develop job numbers and cost codes that will allow for advanced reporting not only to themselves but provide useful information to estimating, project managers and accounting as well.

Control de obras 3000 de Cea Ordenadores

Different Types of Construction Tools and Their Utilities

The tools and equipments used for construction purposes are known as construction tools. Some of the best equipments are used by the corporate companies for constructing buildings. These tools are essential for the quick completion of projects. Several excellent tools are available today which is vital for constructing buildings.

Essential Construction Tools

Though there are several apparatus which aid in constructing buildings some of the most essential tools are as follows:

  • Crane: Used mainly for deconstructing buildings, crane is one of the most important equipments which are used widely. Cranes are also used to lift resources from one place to another easily. These machines are categorized as heavy construction tools. There are different types of cranes used for various purposes.
  • Crawler: Also known as a bulldozer, the crawler is a tractor with a dozer blade. It is used for constructing large buildings.
  • Loaders: Loaders are used for constructing buildings and roads. Loaders are also known as front loaders, scoop loader, front end loader, bucket loader and so forth. Loaders use buckets to move resources to different places. The different materials transported by the loaders include sand, gravel, wood chips, dirt and so forth.
  • Forklift: Forklift is one of most handy constructive tools that are used for lifting heavy equipments. The forklifts are available in different capacities and sizes. It is mainly used for moving heavy equipments in warehouses and manufacturing units.
  • Excavator: The excavators are constructive tools used for various purposes like digging holes, fountains, handing materials, demolishing buildings, digging trenches, heavy lifting and so froth. This heavy building equipment is also known as the digger with a cab installed on a pivot and has a bucket as well as an articulated arm.
  • Road roller: Constructive tools also include road rollers or roller compacter which is used to compact concrete, dirt, gravel and asphalt. The road roller is used mainly for constructing roads and other construction purposes.
  • Concrete mixers: Widely used equipment is the concrete mixer which is used to prepare concrete mixture by mixing cement, sand, gravel and water. Earlier this homogenous mixture was prepared manually but now with the help of this apparatus, concrete mixer can be made quickly and easily. The mixer contains a rotating drum which mixes the concrete.
  • Scrapers: A scraper is multifaceted equipment that is used for various purposes and is quite efficient for digging, excavating and hauling.
  • Backhoe: Backhoe is used for demolition purposes and for digging holes. It is an apparatus that is used in most of the construction sites.
  • Sand screeners: The sand screeners are quite essential to sieve the sand and segregate it from dirt and other foreign objects. There are many types of sand screener including vibratory screening machines supplied by the construction tools manufacturers in the online portals.

In addition to the above tools and apparatus, there are many other types of equipment which are essential in any building construction site such as saws, nail gun, tool belt and so forth. The use of these construction tools is imperative for better and faster completion of building projects.

Control de obras 3000 de Cea Ordenadores

How to Start a House Cleaning Business on a Tight Budget

"If you use Emotion and Love to drive your sales and your business, you will create Loyalty Beyond Reason. And I promise you, you will build relationships and enjoy a business that exceeds beyond your wildest expectations"

First of all, before you decide to start your cleaning business, make sure this kind of work is right for you. You will need to be in good physical condition. Cleaning is very hard strenuous work. You will need to have good customer relation skills. You will need to have basic office skills and some accounting skills.

If you are planning on leaving your full time position to start a cleaning business, make sure you have at least six months of savings. Or keep your full time job and start out part time.

Research all the aspects of the cleaning service business. From customer service to advertising, taxes, employees, insurance and bonding, what to charge and how to clean a home professionally. Cleaning your own home and cleaning professionally is totally different. Learning how to clean professionally takes a lot of time. When a client pays for your services they expect to come home and find their home spotless.

Getting those first clients takes time, persistence and patience. You will not get a hundred clients overnight.

Obtaining Those First Clients The hardest part of starting your own cleaning service is obtaining those first clients. Most clients want to know how long you have been in business and want references. The best thing to do is let clients know that, yes, you are new to the business but that you have thoroughly reviewed all aspects of the cleaning business and assure them that you know what you are capable of cleaning them home to their specifications. Be confident. I can not stress this enough. Clients love to see confidence. It relieves their worries and lets them know that their home is in good hands.

References: To get a few good references when starting out, ask some friends or family members if you can clean their home for free or at a discounted rate. The sound of working for free may not be appealing but it will be worth it to get some good testimonials.

When cleaning those first homes, go for quality, not how fast you can clean the home. Cleaning efficiently takes a long time, but you will get to the point where you can do a thorough cleaning in a short time. After cleaning make sure you go back and double check all rooms to make sure you did not miss anything. Impress those first clients and word of mouth will spread soon.

Advertising Your company image is everything. Before you start advertising, decide what image you want to portray on your advertising material. Your image is very important. Be consistent with all your advertising. If you have a logo be sure to use it on all your advertising materials. I think it is best to have a website developed before you start advertising. When advertising, stick with the same logo and colors.

Advertise in Local Paper: Start by running a text ad in your local newspaper. Try to come up with an eye catching ad. Do not sell your services on low rates, sell your services on your quality of work and what you can do for the client that other companies do not. There is a lot of competition in the cleaning service. You have to stand out from the rest.

Magnetic Signs or Lettering for your Vehicle: Having your business name and contact information on your vehicle is a great way to advertise. We use the vinyl lettering. The lettering looks much more professional than the magnetic signs.

Flyers: You can print nice flyers on your home computer, but I would suggest investing in some professional flyers. Hang flyers at Hair Dressers, Laundromats, Restaurants, Bakeries, Grocery Stores, etc. Put flyers on car windows at local groceries stores and businesses. You can even go door to door in neighborhoods you would like to work in. You can not put them in mailboxes. but you can put them in the front door.

Door Hangers: Door hangers are a great way to get new clients. Pick the neighborhood you would like to work in and hang the door hangers on the doors. When people get flyers or ads in their mailbox they usually throw them away with the junk mail. But if there is a door hanger on the door they will take the time to look at it.

Business Cards: Start passing out your business cards to friends and family members. You can also ask your local businesses if you can leave some cards on their counters.

Referral Program: A great way to obtain new clients is through a referral program. Offer existing clients a discount when they refer a friend. You can give your existing clients a discount when the friend uses your services three times.

Website: These days people live very busy lives so they use the convenience of the internet to shop for the services they need. A lot of working women will shop for services while at work. Everyone that has a business should have a website. It shows clients that you are serious about your business and allows them to research your business in their own time.

Cleaning Products: By using all natrual products, you can offer your clients a healthy cleaning experience and protect ourselves against harsh chemicals. Clients love the natural cleaning products with essential oils. They come home to a healthy clean home filled with the wonderful scents of aromatherapy essential oils.

Tip: Always carry hand sanitizer and wash your hands often while cleaning homes. Wear gloves when cleaning bathrooms. You will be exposed to a lot of different germs in clients homes.

Remember most customers prefer that you bring your own cleaning supplies. That way they do not have to worry about going to the store for cleaning supplies before you clean. Some customers have special cleaners for certain appliances or floors in their houses. These customers usually will have these cleaners on hand for you to use. We almost always use the customers vacuum cleaner. That way you do not have to carry a heavy vacuum from house to house.

What to Charge I mentioned earlier that you should sell your services on your quality of work and not your low rates. If your rates are too low, clients will think that your work is sub-standard and that you are not experienced. Also you want to attract the clients that can afford your services. I made the mistake of pricing my work too low when I first started out. Cleaning is hard work, charge what you are worth. As the old saying goes "You get what you pay for."

Some companies charge by the hour, some charge by the room, some charge a flat rate per home and some charge by the square foot. I think it is better to charge by the home, not by the hour. If a client knows they have to pay one set fee, they do not care if you take 2 hours or 5 hours. Also your clients will know what they are paying up front and will not have to worry about added expenses.

No two houses are the same. And there is no set charge for all homes. You have to clean for awhile yourself to get some experience and to work out a system to clean efficiently. Only you know what you want and need to make. Decide what you need to make hourly to cover all expenses and still make a good profit.

A word of advise: Make sure when you start your company that you charge what you would charge if you had employees. Some people make the mistake of under charging when they start out just to get customers and then later on when they grow and need to hire help they are not making enough money on their homes to pay help. Do not under price your work. Cleaning homes is very hard physical work and you did not get into this business to work for nothing.

New Construction Cleaning If you decide to do this type of work you will need more equipment. You will need ladders, window cleaning kits with long extensions, a shop vac, etc. These types of jobs are usually 2 to 3 person jobs. New construction cleaning requires a lot more cleaning. You may have to remove stickers and labels from windows and bathroom showers, sinks and toilets. Some require that you clean the vents to remove dust from construction work. There will be ceiling fans to clean, scrubbing floors, and cleaning woodwork to remove dust. New construction cleaning rates depend on the area you live in.

Insurance and Bonding. You need to be an honest person and somewhat personable. People will need to trust you to be in their homes. Most clients are concerned about having someone new in their house, with good reason. You should be bonded and fully insured. Liability insurance rates depend on your insurance carrier and where you are located. Each person you hire will increase your liability insurance. It's well worth the cost. You can pay quarterly or yearly. You can purchase your bond through your local insurance company. You will need to renew the bond every year. * Note: if you hire employees and cover them under your insurance, they must be an employee on payroll and not a sub-contractor. If you employ them as a sub-contractor your insurance will not cover them. If they are a sub-contractor they are required to carry their own insurance. You

Hiring Help If you start out cleaning the homes by yourself, you will always get to the point where you need to expand your business. Start out with one part time employee. Train her and let her take your place one day a week. Then have her take your place 2 days a week and so on. This will give you the free time that you need to market your business and obtain more clients. After you get more clients you will be able to hire more part time help. Occasionally you will be able to stop doing the cleaning yourself and just run the business end, which is the only way you will be able to grow your business. When training new employees, always, either train them yourself or have a lead person train them. Make sure there is a lead person on each and every cleaning job. Employees have a tendency to slack off when they are on their own.

Growing Your Business You will ever get to the point where you have enough employees and lead people and you will be able to stop working in your business and start running your business. You will find that after awhile it will get to be too much trying to clean everyday and at the same time giving estimations, answering calls, scheduling, doing book work, obtaining new clients, etc.

Remember one of the most important qualifications for a cleaning service is TRUST. A client has to know they can trust you alone in their home. After you acquire a few cleaning positions ask the clients if you can use them for a reference. Most of the time they are more than willing to let you use them for a reference. This is how you build your business and acquire new clients is through referrals. Be dependable. Most clients will want to be set up on an every week or every other week schedule on the same day of the week. Try to always keep this same schedule without the client requests you to switch to another day. If you have to cancel a cleaning date, make sure you try to reschedule at the earliest possible date to make up the cleaning.

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